When thinking about governance models for city-TLDs, the form used by Brazil is frequently cited as a model. When considering it as a model for cities, keep in mind that Brazil is far larger than even the most mega of cities, and the scope of the CGI.gr governance entity’s operation is unencumbered by local or national governments. That being said, there are some lessons to be learned from CGI.br.
This page presents the mission, membership, and principles for CGI.br, Brazil’s Internet Steering Committee.
(NOTE: The source of the below is http://cgi.br/about/.)
The Brazilian Internet Steering Committee has 21 members:
- Four from the corporate sector
- Internet access and content providers
- Telecommunication infrastructure providers;
- Hardware, telecommunication and software industries;
- Enterprises that use the Internet.
- Nine from the Federal Government
- Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation
- Ministry of Communication
- Presidential Cabinet
- Ministry of Defense
- Ministry of Development, Industry and Foreign Trade
- Ministry of Planning, Budget and Management
- National Telecommunication Agency
- National Council for Scientific and Technological Development
- National Council of State Secretariats for Science, Technology and Information Issues
- Four from what they refer to as “the third sector” and might be thought of here as civil society
- Three representatives from the scientific and technological community
- One Internet expert
The mission of the CGI.br involves advancing the following rights and responsibilities:
- proposing policies and procedures regarding the regulation of Internet activities;
- recommending standards for technical and operational procedures for the Internet in Brazil;
- establishing strategic directives related to the use and development of the Internet in Brazil;
- promoting studies and technical standards for network and service security in the country;
- coordinating the allocation of Internet addresses (IPs) and registration in the <.br> domain;
- collecting, organizing and disseminating information on Internet services, including indicators and statistics.
Considering the need of support and orientation for its actions and decisions according to fundamental principles, the Brazilian Internet Steering Committee (CGI.br), approved Resolution CGI.br/Res/2009/03/P with the Principles for the Governance and Use of the Internet in 1999.
Principles For The Governance And Use Of The Internet
- Freedom, privacy and human rights – The use of the Internet must be driven by the principles of freedom of expression, individual privacy and the respect for human rights, recognizing them as essential to the preservation of a fair and democratic society.
- Democratic and collaborative governance – Internet governance must be exercised in a transparent, multilateral and democratic manner, with the participation of the various sectors of society, thereby preserving and encouraging its character as a collective creation.
- Universality – Internet access must be universal so that it becomes a tool for human and social development, thereby contributing to the formation of an inclusive and nondiscriminatory society, for the benefit of all.
- Diversity – Cultural diversity must be respected and preserved and its expression must be stimulated, without the imposition of beliefs, customs or values.
- Innovation – Internet governance must promote the continuous development and widespread dissemination of new technologies and models for access and use.
- Neutrality of the network – Filtering or traffic privileges must meet ethical and technical criteria only, excluding any political, commercial, religious and cultural factors or any other form of discrimination or preferential treatment.
- Non-liability of the network – All action taken against illicit activity on the network must be aimed at those directly responsible for such activities, and not at the means of access and transport, always upholding the fundamental principles of freedom, privacy and the respect for human rights.
- Functionality, security and stability – The stability, security and overall functionality of the network must be actively preserved through the adoption of technical measures that are consistent with international standards and encourage the adoption of best practices.
- Standardization and interoperability – The Internet must be based on open standards that facilitate interoperability and enable all to participate in its development.
- Legal and regulatory environments – The legal and regulatory environments must preserve the dynamics of the Internet as a space for collaboration.
NOTE: The following was created using auto-translated by Google Translate on December 3, 2014. So please consider the following as only providing a general idea of the selection process. (Source document.)
The Brazilian model of Internet governance is recognized around the world by gathering members from various sectors of society. Thus, the CGI.br represents an important multisectoral forum for dialogue and decision on the major issues related to the Internet in Brazil. In addition to devote a majority in its composition and effective participation of civil society in their actions related to Internet growth management in the country, CGI.br established an electoral process that includes the representation of the various sectors involved more directly to the Internet , especially with regard to the formulation of its policies and national policies.
Since 2003 the CGI.br governing body has been composed of 21 members, 11 representatives of Civil Society, nine representatives of government agencies, and an Internet expert.
CGI.br civil society representatives are elected for three-year terms. Representatives are selected by vote of an electoral college composed of organizations representing each segment (Corporate, Academic, and Non-Profit).
The appeals process:
Each non-gov sector has its own criteria for qualification of voters:
- non-profit non-commercial organizations (not associations) are required to exist legally for at least two years to vote for the civil society representatives, who are indicated by these qualified Non Government Organizations (NGOs);
- technical and scientific community representatives are indicated by their respective professional associations who register to participate in the Electoral College;
- the business sector is divided in four categories: Internet users (here you have bank and accounting associations, as well as associations of other companies who do not fit in the three other sectors); hardware and software companies; Internet service providers; and telecom companies (including those media companies who provide connectivity services).
Except for the NGO sector, the Electoral College of each sector is constituted of associations, not individual organizations, faculties, or companies.
In all cases, registering for the Electoral Colleges is open to any entity who qualifies in its respective sector. The candidates are chosen by these entities. CGI.br in no way interferes with this, nor does the government. NIC.br runs an electronic process of registering voters (members of the Electoral Colleges) and the electronic balloting.
CGI.br constitutes an Electoral Commission for the exclusive purpose of checking qualifications of prospective Electoral College members according to the rules above, and a conflict resolution process is run to settle dubious cases.
CGI.br believes governance is open and as participative as each community or constituency decides it to be. In the case of NGOs, there are more than 200,000 registered NGOs in the country, but very few are interested in Internet governance, so the NGO Electoral College is usually composed of a few hundred NGOs, despite campaigns we run to promote the importance of this participation.
Electoral College Members
The following is a list of entities approved as members of the Electoral College for the 2013 CGI.br election (source). The list was announced after reviewing appeals to membership. The first dozen or so members of the larger categories are presented so as to limit this page’s size and to indicate the type of membership.
Scientific and Technological Community (Complete list of category members)
|RESEARCHERS IN BRAZILIAN ASSOCIATION CYBERCULTURE – ABCiber|
|National Association of Post Graduate Studies and Research in Education|
|National Laboratory of Computer Networks|
|National Network of Education and Research|
|BRAZILIAN SOCIETY FOR SCIENCE PROGRESS|
|Brazilian Computer Society|
|Brazilian Society of Telecommunications|
|LATIN UNION OF POLITICAL ECONOMY OF THE INFORMATION, COMMUNICATION AND CULTURE – CHAPTER BRAZIL|
Industry Computer Goods, Telecommunications and Software (Partial List of category members – 16 of 39)
|ASSESPRO ASSOCIATION OF BRAZILIAN REGIONAL INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY RIO DE JANEIRO|
|ASSESPRO ASSOCIATION OF TECHNOLOGY BRAZILIAN COMPANIES REGIONAL INFORMATION SÃO PAULO|
|ASSESPRO CEARÁ ASSOCIATION OF BRAZILIAN COMPANIES OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY, SOFTWARE, INTERNET-EC|
|ASSESPRO REGIONAL Parana|
|ASSESPRO Santa Catarina|
|Santa Catarina Association of Technology Companies – ACATE|
|Association of Brazilian Companies for Information Technology – National Assespro|
|Association of Brazilian Companies for Information Technology – Regional Minas Gerais -ASSESPRO-MG|
|Association of Brazilian Companies for Information Technology of the Federal District – Assespro / DF|
|Association of Brazilian Companies for Information Technology, Software and Internet – ASSESPRO ES|
|Association for Promotion of Brazilian Software Excellence SOFTEX|
|National Federation of IT Technical Services Businesses and Similar|
|Incubator of Technology-Based Companies TecVitória|
ISPs and Internet Content (Complete list of category members)
|ABCID Digital Inclusion Centers of Brazilian Association|
|ABEMD-MARKETING ASSOCIATION OF BRAZILIAN DIRECT|
|ABRINT – Brazilian Association of Internet Providers and Telecommunications|
|ANER – National Association of Magazine Publishers|
|APADi Paulista Association of Digital Agencies|
|NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF INTERNET SOLUTIONS FOR BUSINESS AND TELECOMMUNICATIONS-REDETELESUL|
|Abranet – Internet Brazilian Association|
|Brazilian Association of Radio and Television – OPEN|
|National Association of Newspapers – ANJ|
|InternetSul – Association of Service Providers and Internet Information|
|ITIBR – Institute of Technology Brazil|
|SEINESP – BUSINESS UNION STATE INTERNET SAO PAULO|
|SEPROSP – Association of Data Processing Companies and Est.SP of Computer Services|
Telecommunications Infrastructure Providers (Complete list of category members)
|BRAZILIAN ASSOCIATION OF RESOURCES IN TELECOMMUNICATIONS|
|Brazilian Federation of Telecommunications – FEBRATEL|
|ABRAFIX – Brazilian Association of Service Dealers Calling Fixed Switch|
|Brazilian Association of Telecommunications Companies Satellite – ABRASAT|
|Brazilian Association of Pay TV|
|National Association of Cellular Operators – MERL|
|Proprietary Association of Business Infrastructure and private telecommunications systems|
|SIND EMP PREST SERV TELECOM SYSTEMS NETWORKS TELEAT PAY-CABLE TV DTH MMDS EQUIPTOS COMPON IN|
|SINDHART-Union Enterprise Holdings and Adm.de Rec.Hum Service Delivery., Telemarketing|
|UNION NATIONAL ENTERPRISES PREST. OF SERV. And Installers SYSTEMS AND TV NETWORKS FOR SIGNATURE|
|National Union of Operating Companies Television Subscription and Conditional Access Service|
|National Union of Telecommunications Companies Satellite – SINDISAT|
|National Union of Telephone Companies and Mobile Service and Staff – SINDITELEBRASIL|
|TELEBRASIL – Brazilian Association of Telecommunications|
Business Sector User (Partial List of about 300 category members)
|ABEL- Brazilian Association of Leasing Companies|
|ABEMUSICA – BRAS ASSOC OF MUSIC|
|ABIA – Brazilian Association of Food Industries|
|ABICS – ASSOC BRAS IND CAFE SOLUBLE|
|ABIFA – ASSOC BRAS FOUNDRY|
|Abimaq – ASSOC BRAS IND MACHINES AND EQUIPMENT|
|BRAZILIAN ABIT ASSOCIATION OF TEXTILE INDUSTRY AND CLOTHING|
|ABRACI – ASSOC CIRCUIT BOARDS BRAS IMPRE MONT MENBRANAS ELECTRONIC KEYBOARD AND COMP|
|ABRAFLEX – ASSOC BRAS FABRIC EMBAL ROLLED|
|ABRAPUR – BRAS ASSOC OF CHILDREN’S PRODUCTS|
|ABRESI – BRAZILIAN ASSOCIATION OF ENTITIES AND CUISINE OF BUSINESS HOSTING AND TOURISM|
|ABRID – Brazilian Association of Digital Identification Technology Companies|
|ABRINQ – ASSOC BRAS TOYS FABRICANT|
|ACESE – COMMERCIAL AND BUSINESS ASSOCIATION OF SERGIPE|
|ACIB – COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL ASSOCIATION OF BARUERI|
|AESCON-ASSC ESOC OF CONSULT, ASSESS, skills, INFORM PESQ ESO|
Third Sector (Partial List of about 230 category members)
|AMORCAB – ASSOCIATION OF RIVERSIDE–Cabaceiras OF RESIDENTS
APAE PARENTS AND FRIENDS OF ASSOC BARUERI EXCEPTIONALARJAP – ASSOCIATION OF RURAL YOUTH AND ADULTS OF THE SITE Pajeú MITE AND STONE POCO
ASS. HOPE OF SINGING COCK COMMUNITIES, GOOD PLACE, PAUL AFUNSO, CUMARU, Alagamar And BOA VISTA
COMMUNITY ASSOC OF BALANCE
ASSOC OF AGRIC FAMILY OF SETTLING OF NEW ALAGOA PROJ
ASSOC OF SMALL RURAL PROD ASSENT SANTA VITORIA
ASSOC OF JOB OF RURAL Umburana SETTLING OF PROJ
ASSOC OF RURAL WORKERS OF SETTLING TANKS PROJ
ASSOC. COMM. OF PROD. RURAL SHADOWS LARGE AND MIRACLES
ASSOC. THE JOB OF P R OF SETTLING THE NS PRSP SOC FOX
ASSOCI.DE DESENV.PROD.COM.DO SIT.VELHO, S.GONC.E M.NOVO
POOL COMM RURAL RED SAND
ASSOCIA.DE DESENV.PRODUT.DO CROWNS OF SIT.STO.ANTONIO
BENEFIT ASSOCIATION HOME CAIADA
ASSOCIATION BOM JESUS I – ABOJES